Demand side management for heat pumps - Potentials of load adjustment and options for controlling considering heterogeneous building groups



Charlotte Ellerbrok
Fraunhofer-Institute for Building Physics
Branch Kassel, Department Energy Systems, Group LowExergy Systems
Phone +49 561 / 804 7449 – charlotte.ellerbrok@ibp.fraunhofer.de



Supervision
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jens Knissel
Subject Area Building Services; Faculty of Architecture, Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture

Short discription of the subject

Hintergrund und Motivation
Along with the development of renewable energies the necessity for load balancing is growing. Particularly, the power generation by photovoltaic and wind energy is dominated by large fluctuations caused by the weather. With the rising integration of consumers in a demand side management the unsteady generation of electricity out of renewable sources can be balanced and its feed-in supported. Thereby, required storage capacities, as well as power grid extension, can be reduced.

An important part of the secondary energy in Germany, around 40%, is used for the generation of heat in buildings. That means by connecting the power and heating sector a huge potential for load shifting can be developed. As a link between those sectors heat pumps offer a sustainable option to generate useful heat for the existing building stock as well as for new buildings. As shift and controllable decentralized consumers they can be integrated in an intelligent power grid. As a side effect, the share of renewable energy in the heating sector can be enlarged.

Realisation
Within this work, load-shifting possibilities of heat pumps in residential buildings will be considered. By storing heat in the structure of the building the heat supply can be postponed from the heat demand for a certain period, depending on the characteristics of the building.

Building types will be chosen according to the German residential building stock. Additionally, small retail and dwelling-like uses will be considered to show multi-use districts. The selection of buildings will be based on an initial energetic analysis in my master thesis. According to the selection of building types existing building models in the thermal-dynamic simulation software TRNSYS will be enhanced. Based on a parametric study these building models will be simplified and used in a simulation with typical groups of buildings. In regard to the optimization criteria load distribution potential, thermal comfort and efficiency of heat generation control strategies are developed, tested in the simulation models, evaluated and optimized. So the load-shifting potential for different building combinations can be estimated.

Expected results
The aim of this dissertation is the development of foresighted controlling strategies for generation-controlled heat pumps in heterogeneous building groups. Construction characteristics of the buildings that lead to different heat storage capacity and heat losses are considered as well as different characteristic user behaviour. As a boundary condition a determined thermal comfort has to be ensured. Furthermore, a prediction of weather and electricity rate is considered in the control strategy. Different thermal inertia and storage size of the buildings shall be used systematically to increase the collective load-shifting potential.


Short CV

Period
Activity
Since 01.2013Research assistant at the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Kassel
Dissertation with the support of Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt
09.2010 – 12.2012Student assistant at Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Kassel
10.2009 – 12.2012Master renewable Energy and energy efficiency at the University of Kassel
04.2009 – 10.2009Freelance worker for the architectural office Grzechowiak, Aachen
06.2008 – 01.2009Architect at Kisho Kurokawa Architects and Associates, Tokyo, Japan
10.2001 – 02.2008Architectural studies at the RWTH Aachen
           

Focus of interests and research


Publications

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